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PLEASE SUPPORT SEACHAR’S ESTUFA FINCA PROJECT AT: http://jolkona.livestories.com/campaigns/eb1?view=campaign-image-view
At a recent meeting in the Bribri community of Amubri, Costa Rica, a woman told one of our Estufa Finca team members that because of deforestation, children are now growing up in the Talamanca Valley without ever having seen a monkey. She then went on to tell us how she plans to use our Estufa Finca Cook-stoves and biochar to address that problem.
Since 2011, SeaChar has been working with indigenous Bribri, farming communities in the Talamanca Canton of S.E. Costa Rica to combat deforestation and unhealthy cooking practices by offering fuel-efficient, clean-burning cook-stoves to households at risk from the deadly effects of smoky, inefficient cooking fires. Our innovative stoves create high-quality agricultural charcoal (biochar) as a byproduct of the cooking process. This carbon negative method of building and sustaining healthy, productive soil has a 7000-year old history in the Americas. Improving the productivity of tropical soils helps to prevent the clearing of more forest. High quality charcoal is a valued commodity and the surplus produced by a cook’s stove can earn a family much needed extra income. This activity will soon form the basis of a cooperative community owned business.
Biochar-producing stoves can save lives and trees. In the communities where we work, most families survive on less than $3 a day. Through our time spent in Costa Rica, we’ve learned that deforestation, poor agricultural productivity, poverty and childhood mortality are interconnected issues. SeaChar seeks to combat these socio-economic problems by teaching communities how to build, cook on and sell easy-to-use stoves. The Estufa Finca (Farm Stove) has been laboratory tested and consistently reduces Carbon Monoxide emissions by 83% and Particulate Matter emissions by 91%, when compared to open fire cooking. The stove also uses approximately 40% less fuel than a traditional stove and, is able to use renewable inputs such as bamboo or coconut shell.
Why we picked this campaign?
1. The organization and technology have a proven track record of effectiveness.
2. The project emphasizes training and community development, promoting long-term environmental and economic sustainability.
3. The Estufa Finca (Farm Stove) design creates high-quality biochar as a byproduct of the cooking process. This valuable charcoal is being sold to generate income for stove users.
SeaChar’s innovative stove can reduce carbon monoxide poisoning, drastically reduce particulate matter that poisons lungs and skies alike, reduce deforestation, and provide farmers with a valuable soil amendment (biochar). Most importantly, your support will help create a truly sustainable socio-economic model that will prosper independent of grants and donations.
PLEASE SUPPORT SEACHAR’S ESTUFA FINCA PROJECT AT: http://jolkona.livestories.com/campaigns/eb1?view=campaign-image-view
Posted by: seachar_admin in: News
April29th reposted from: http://www.agrowingculture.org
Modern research on the use of wood vinegar was first carried out in Japan in the early 1950s. It was reported to be effective against: rosette or green mosaic in wheat, nematode in sweet potato, tobacco mosaic, powdery mildew in leafy vegetables, leaf miner and other insect pests. However, due to the introduction of agro-chemicals and their instantaneous effects, research on wood vinegar took a back seat. Ten years ago, interest in wood vinegar resurfaced as the effectiveness and safety of agro-chemicals were put on the spot. It is now commonly used by Japanese farmers and is also catching up fast in Taiwan and Korea.
It is estimated that wood vinegar contains more than 300 constituents such as acetic acid, methanol, phenol, ester, acetals, ketone, formic acid and many others. Instead of the specific effectiveness of a certain element, in the case of wood vinegar, various elements work synergistically. Various factors are controlled by the dilution rate of the wood vinegar. It has a bactericidal effect as well as the ability to propagate microbes. It has radicational qualities, which provides a growth inducing effect. But depending on the concentration of the mixture it can also be used to retard the growth of the plant.
The various elements in the wood vinegar work as co-enzymes or catalysts. Various enzymes are involved in reactions such as cell multiplication. The functions of the enzymes are assisted by the elements in the wood vinegar which co-ordinate the reactions and the cell multiplication. Elements that are effective as co-enzymes and catalysts require only a minute amount. It is like vitamins in our bodies. The dosage of some of these elements is effective in the unit of PPM. (Parts per million).
Wood vinegar contains a small amount of nutrients directly taken in by the plants. It also contains very few elements that have the bactericidal and anthelmintic effect. It is neither a fertilizer nor an agro-chemical. Yet when it is correctly applied, it enhances the intake of fertilizers and reduces the damages by various diseases. Wood vinegar enhances rooting, helps in the regulating of the nutrients condition of the soil, and the balance of the microbiological population. The changes in the microbiological population not only greatly reduce the tendency of soil bound diseases, it also increases the vitality of the roots and hence enable better uptake of nutrients.
Wood vinegar had been long known to be very effective against nematodes. It kills nematodes directly as well as propagates microbes that feed on them. The high acidity, methanol and phenol content have strong bactericidal effect at a high concentration, such as 50 to 100 times dilution. However, microbes propagate well when it is diluted to 200 times dilution. This is mainly due to the effect on the metabolism by its main element, acetic acid. Acetyl co-enzyme is produced by plants and microbes from acetic acid. Through the TCA cycle, acetyl co-enzyme is converted into citridic acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, succiric acid and other elements that are necessary for the plant and microbes. This is the main reason behind the propagation of microbes.
Through foliar application, some bacteria are killed by direct contact and the changes of the microbiological population deter the propagation of pathogenic bacteria. The acidity on the leaves surface also deters propagation. However, the most remarkable effects of foliar application are the increase in resistance of the leaves against pests and diseases and the increase in the effectiveness of agro-chemicals.
Through foliar application of wood vinegar, the leaves become shiny and darker in color. This is due to the increase in chlorophyll through the effect of ester in the wood vinegar which promotes photosynthesis. This ester also helps in the formation of sugar and amino acids. This also results in a better taste of the produce. The healthier leaves naturally have a stronger resistance against pests and diseases.
Five plant hormones are closely related to the growth and health of a plant. These are: gibberellin, cytokinin, auxin, etherlene and abscisic acid. Etherlene and abscisic acid contribute to the plant’s resistance against diseases and attacks from bacteria. An amino acid called methionine effects the formation of etherlene. The formation of etherlene is reduced by the excessive intake of nitrogen. On the other hand, growth hormones like gibberellin, cytokinin and auxin will be produced. As a result, the size of the plant increases but the resistance against diseases is reduced. The formation of oxidized etherlene from etherlene and the formation of methionine is accelerated by acids. The wood vinegar helps in their formation due to its acidity.
Furthermore, wood vinegar accelerates the process of transformation from nitrogen to amino acids. In other words, nitrogen is effectively transformed into amino acids. This will also stabilize the formation of methionine. As the result, oxidized etherlene is also produced. These processes contribute to higher plants resistance against various diseases.
At 500 times dilution, wood vinegar can reduce the cluster value of water to 1/3. This means that the water is activated and can be easily absorbed by the plants because water with a low cluster value is in a very small mass. Each of these masses will hold one or few mineral elements. These elements can be easily taken into the plants.
The concentration of agro-chemicals or liquid fertilizers can be reduced by 50% if it is diluted in a 500 times dilution solution of wood vinegar due to its higher permeation. This will greatly reduce the use of agro-chemicals. However, it should not be used with alkaline chemicals.
Essay submitted by Steven Leong
Posted by: seachar_admin in: News
2013 North American Biochar Symposium–Early Bird Registration Extended to August 31, 2013
There couldn’t be a more exciting time to join your colleagues for a North American conference on biochar. Over the past six years, growers, scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs worldwide have experienced the remarkable properties and benefits of using biochar as a soil conditioner, as a medium for ecosystem restoration, as an agent for wastewater remediation, and even as a food additive to enhance livestock nutrition. The event will be held October 13 – 16 at the University of Massachusetts located in Amherst, MA, USA.
Registration is now open for this event at: www.symposium2013.pvbiochar.
In addition to learning about exciting new developments in the field through networking and formal presentations at the event, participants will also have the opportunity to attend the following:
Ms. Thayer Tomlinson
International Biochar Initiative
IBI is a non-profit, member-supported organization and is counting on your generous donation to put the Earth “Back in the Black”. Please join us at www.biochar-international.org/
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Climate Solutions’ mission is to accelerate practical and profitable solutions to global warming by galvanizing leadership, growing investment, and bridging divides. Since 1998, Climate Solutions has pioneered the vision and cultivated political leadership in the Northwest for the proposition that clean energy and broadly-shared economic prosperity can go hand-in-hand. Through our programs such as Business Leaders for Climate Solutions, New Energy Cities, Sustainable Aviation Fuels, and Northwest Biocarbon Initiative, Climate Solutions builds a powerful constituency for local, regional, and national action on climate and clean energy. Climate Solutions has offices in Seattle, Olympia, and Portland. For more information about Climate Solutions, visit www.climatesolutions.org.
The Northwest Biocarbon Initiative (NBI) program is dedicated to establishing the Northwest as a leading laboratory and incubator for biocarbon solutions (www.nwbiocarbon.org). In addition to rapidly transitioning off of fossil fuels (the first climate solution), we must also restore safe levels of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere by developing scalable strategies to pull carbon from the air and store it in soils, trees, and other plants (the second climate solution). NBI is building the movement to protect and increase carbon stored in forests, farms, communities, wetlands, coasts, and other ecosystems, in ways that are economically attractive and deliver multiple public benefits.
Climate Solutions is seeking a talented Coordinator to lead our NBI program in its movement-building work to:
The NBI Coordinator will work in close consultation with Climate Solutions’ Director of Strategic Innovation, Eileen V. Quigley, who will supervise this position, as well as with NBI’s Steering Committee, which includes several key partner organizations. This position may be located in our Olympia, Seattle, or Portland office.
ESSENTIAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES:
Skills and Knowledge:
Education and Training:
Bachelor’s Degree at a minimum. A Master’s Degree in environmental systems, eco-biology, or public policy would be applicable, but is not required.
Licenses or Certificates:
Possession of, or ability to possess, within 3 months, a driver’s license and auto insurance.
This is an exempt position with a generous benefits including, medical, paid leave, and retirement. Salary range starts at $50,000 annually.
Climate Solutions is committed to equal opportunity in employment and promotion for all qualified persons without regard to race, color, age, religion, sex, marital status, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, citizenship, military or veteran status, the presence of any sensory, mental or physical disability, pregnancy and childbirth, family responsibilities, or any other basis protected by applicable laws, regulations, or guidelines relating to discrimination in employment.
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For Immediate Release
Contact: Thayer Tomlinson, IBI Communications Director
July 16, 2013
The Board of Directors of the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) is pleased to announce that Mr. Wiley Barbour has been appointed to serve as the organization’s Executive Director. Mr. Barbour, P.E. is a licensed professional engineer with 20 years of relevant experience in growing new markets for environmental products and services, and technical expertise in greenhouse gas emissions, climate change strategies, and project management.
Mr. Barbour comes to IBI from Camco Clean Energy, a project development company investing in emission reduction projects around the world. During his four years as a Vice President at Camco, Mr. Barbour led a successful effort to develop the first forest carbon project in the state of Alaska and created and launched the Nitrace project, a first of its kind program to help farmers in the US corn belt access environmental markets.
Mr. Barbour previously served as the Executive Director of Environmental Resources Trust (ERT), an early pioneer in market based solutions to environmental problems. At ERT he developed standards and protocols for the emerging carbon market, working with a variety of governmental and corporate clients. After leading ERT into a merger with Winrock International, he helped to found and launch the American Carbon Registry.
As a Senior Policy Analyst in the US Environmental Protection Agency in the Clinton Administration, Mr. Barbour was responsible for the US Government’s Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory Program. At the EPA, he participated in numerous US delegations to the United Nations climate change negotiations, and contributed to the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, particularly on issues related to national reporting, emissions accounting, and verification of emission inventories.
Says Mr. Barbour, “I am thrilled to join the thousands of researchers, supporters and members of the International Biochar Initiative. As CO2 levels in our atmosphere rise above 400 ppm for the first time in human history, the world is looking for inexpensive and sustainable ways to pull that excess carbon back out of the atmosphere. Biochar production and use holds the promise to do just that, while improving the fertility and resiliency of degraded and marginal soils.”
The board also wishes to thank Ms. Debbie Reed who served as the IBI Executive Director for many years. Ms. Reed will continue to work with IBI as the organization’s Policy Director to expand our focus on creating a more supportive policy environment for biochar, and will continue work on the Biochar Carbon Offset Protocol and other initiatives.
For more information on IBI, please see: www.biochar-international.org.
by Hans-Peter Schmidt
Switzerland has become the first country in Europe to officially approve the use of certified biochar in agriculture, with the Federal Ministry of Agriculture issuing its approval on 23 April 2013. In it, the Delinat Institute is given responsibility for controlling biochar quality and the sustainability of its production.
Following an exceptionally thorough 3-year approval procedure involving the various research groups of the Biochar Science Network of Switzerland and the Federal Ministries of the Environment and Health, the Swiss Federal Ministry of Agriculture has issued conditional approval for the use of biochar in agriculture. Approval is based on strict, scientifically checked requirements with regard to the sustainability of biochar production, to biochar quality and to user protection in its application.
Until the sustainable use of other biomasses has been thoroughly checked and accepted as such by the federal administration, the only biomass authorised as source material for producing biochar is untreated wood. This includes roots, prunings from trees, vines and shrubs, wood from biomass plantations, bark, wood chippings and shavings, sawn wood, wood waste, sawdust, wood chips, wood wool and husks. The feedstock for producing biochar must not be contaminated by organic or inert waste (e.g. plastic or remains of paint) or with heavy metals.
In the production of the biochar, any syngases are to be trapped and/or appropriately burned, allowing the emission thresholds for wood-burning systems to be complied with. Material properties and pyrolysis conditions required to achieve the right biochar quality (e.g. pyrolysis duration, temperature, type and moisture level of the input, and other relevant parameters) are to be specified by the producer.
The product definition of biochar is dependent on the source material, the pyrolytic production process used, the carbon content (Corg > 50% dry mass) and the molar H/Corg ratio (0.1 – 0.7). Biochar produced using other processes such as HTC (hydrochar), torrefaction or coking do not fully meet these requirements and are therefore excluded from this approval.
The heavy metal content of the biochar must not exceed the thresholds for fertilisers produced through biomass recycling. The emission levels of PAHs, dioxins and furans must not exceed the recommended values for compost and digestate. Nutrient content and the pH value must be specified.
All specification requirements, all thresholds and the analysis methods to be used correspond to the premium quality of the European Biochar Certificates (EBC-Certificate).
The biochar is to be prepared in such a way (e.g. spraying it with water or mixing it with manure) that no dust occurs when working with it / applying it. Packaging must refer to the need to wear appropriate protective clothing when working with / applying the biochar.
Producers wanting to market biochar in Switzerland require the approval of the Delinat Institute. To gain this approval, the Institute requires the certification of production and product quality in accordance with the European Biochar Certificates.The monitoring of this certificate is in the hands of the independent, state-certified monitoring organisation q.inspecta. Swiss users are only allowed to use biochars for soil conditioning purposes which have gained approval from the Delinat Institute and which therefore are in possession of an EBC Certificate. The Delinat Institute is accountable to the Federal Ministry of Agriculture for the amounts of biochar used in agriculture, and bears responsibility for compliance with the quality and sustainability requirements.
The approval remains in force until biochar is added to the List of Approved Fertilisers (Düngebuchverordnung). The Federal Government has specified a three-year timeframe for this. Within this period further biomasses suitable for producing biochar are to be checked and included in the extended approval procedure, using the positivlist of the EBC Certificate as a basis.
In 1984, Japan became the first country worldwide to approve the use of biochar as a soil conditioner. Switzerland is now the first country in Europe officially authorising biochar for use in agriculture. Switzerland’s strict quality and sustainability regulations are a major factor driving the development of biochar technology as a key technology for closing material cycles. Such regulations are currently missing in the European Union Member States, as well as in the USA and other countries using biochar in considerable amounts in agriculture.
Looking at the EU, the use of biochar in agriculture is neither clearly regulated nor explicitly forbidden. In Germany for example, the use of biochar as animal feed is allowed. It can thus be composted with the manure and applied to fields. In addition, charcoal is allowed as an additive for fertilisers and soil conditioners. What however is missing is an exact definition of what can be counted as biochar and which production conditions and thresholds need to be complied with. With the Swiss approval, we now have an exact definition, along with a requirement for strict quality controls. As a result of this approval, Switzerland can justify its leading role not just in the research and application of biochar, but also into its regulatory approach.
Thanks to a number of EU-sponsored research projects such as EBRN, Interreg or Refertil, we can now hope that a regulatory basis for the sustainable use of biochar will be created within the next few years, and that the development of a centuries-old agricultural tradition will not remain limited or even prohibited by fertiliser legislation pandering to the agri-chemical industry.
Tags: Biochar, Biokohle, Bodenverbesserer, certification, Düngemittelverordnung, EBC, European Biochar Certificate, HTC, hydrochar, Hydrokohle, official approval, soil conditioner, Zertifizierung, Zulassung
Posted by: seachar_admin in: News
I just got introduced to a new biochar resource and website: http://cost.european-biochar.org/en
I just received my first Newsletter from them today:
|COSTTD1107 Newsletter Final.pdf
917K View Download
Posted by: seachar_admin in: News
May 25th Stove Building Workshop in Port Townsend WA. 9am- 4pm
Amor a Primera Vista…..por Thierry Mangel
Hace un año descubrí la Estufa Finca en un taller de demostración organizado en Talamanca por SeaChar. Esta ONG norteamericana está promoviendo el uso de estufas y carboneras de fabricación simple, con la finalidad de producir carbón para introducir al suelo, en un intento de mitigar el cambio climático; Puesto que este carbón en su mayor parte queda secuestrado en el suelo hasta por milenios, no puede más circular en la atmósfera. Una tonelada de carbono ( el principal componente de carbón) corresponde a más de 3,5 toneladas de CO2 (Dióxido de carbono). Así que, fueran quienes fueran los que más ensuciaron nuestra atmósfera, hasta el punto de desarreglar los mecanismos climáticos, tenemos una herramienta casera para contribuir a la limpieza general. Una herramienta positiva para un modo de vivir carbón menos, según el eslogan de SeaChar. Y este resultado se logra por medio de un proceso de carbonización de biomasa que ocurre de arriba hacia abajo, construyendo un fuego al revés, que se prende por encima en un contenedor metálico con las entradas de aire apropiadas .
¡ Reinventando el fuego !
Y cómo si fuera poco, la producción de biocarbón ( carbón de biomasa destinado al suelo) viene acompañada de una cantidad de beneficios que se pueden apreciar directamente en la vida diaria. Lo que inmediatamente se ve es que el proceso prácticamente no produce humo, solamente un poco al encender el combustible ( 90% menos humo según estudios ). Es una tremenda mejora en la salud de millones de personas, principalmente mujeres y niños, puesto que la mitad de la población humana actual cocina con fuego. Luego notamos que el proceso produce mucho calor con un fuego muy activado y que eso nos permite cocinar o calentar agua más rápido de lo usual, a la vez que el combustible rinde más ( 40% menos leña ). Además se puede usar cómo combustible cualquiera biomasa a condición de que esté seca y homogénea: leña, bambú, bagaces, granzas, aserrín, cartón…hasta pasto. Entre más denso el material, más dura el fuego y más produce carbón. Una estufa de buena leña puede funcionar por casi dos horas, una de bambú, apenas 45 minutos.
Es muy fácil aprender a manejar la estufa, cómo cargarla, encenderla, regular el aire y cocinar con ella, y cómo terminar para conservar el carbón antes de que se haga cenizas. También es bastante simple construirla, con sólo una cortadora de metal y un taladro cómo máquinas. Es tecnología de fuente abierta, no hay patente y los modelos así como las instrucciones de fabricación están disponibles para todos. Es un estímulo a la creatividad y al uso inteligente de los recursos, biomasa, materiales reciclados o de bajo costo, y cada uno puede perfeccionar su estufa o carbonera. A más amplia, más calor; a más profunda, más duración. Se puede diseñar un sistema para alejar o acercar la olla del fuego, también es simple calentar agua para usos domésticos o para circular en un sistema de calefacción o en una secadora solar en días nublados. Hay muchas posibilidades con ladrillos y arcilla, solo falta inventarlas. En escala más grande, ya semi- industrial, también se aprovechan los gases generados por el proceso para producir electricidad o biogasolina. Con los modelos caseros simples que promueve SeaChar, producimos carbón y calor de manera muy eficiente, con todos los beneficios mencionados.
Pero no es todo. Este mismo biocarbón que producimos trae una serie impresionante de beneficios para el suelo donde se introduce, especialmente en suelos tropicales poco fértiles o agotados. De eso ya se habían enterado los antiguos pobladores de la cuenca amazónica y su legado de fértiles extensiones de terra preta do Indio es la fuente de inspiración de los redescubrimientos actuales. La ciencia del biocarbón todavía está en pañales, pero sus avances son muy alentadores. Por su estructura muy porosa, un pedacito de carbón es un condominio de lujo para microorganismos del suelo cómo hongos y bacterias. Aparte de mejorar directamente la estructura del suelo, de hecho construyendo suelo, tiene gran capacidad de almacenar agua y nutrientes, y su aplicación resulta en una mejora de la salud del suelo y por consecuencia en una mejora de la salud de las plantas y un aumento de producción. El carbón en sí no es un abono, es una enmienda. Lo mejor es molerlo y empaparlo con nutrientes cómo fermentos líquidos, caldos de bacterias del suelo con melaza, jugos de composta, así podremos apreciar su efecto muy pronto en muchos cultivos. El carbón es un elemento indispensable de los abonos tipo bokashi o para una pila de composta. También permite utilizar menos fertilizantes y eso de forma más eficiente, pues el biocarbón los puede almacenar en vez de que se filtren con la lluvia. Es fundamental para una agricultura renovada, saludable para el planeta y los consumidores, que en vez de vampirizar los recursos, los va multiplicando. El carbón ayuda también a sanar los suelos secuestrando residuos tóxicos cómo contaminantes orgánicos y metales pesados. Así podemos usarlo para filtros diversos, para aguas residuales ( en vez de o en combinación con grava) y para agua potable. Cómo beneficio adicional , la fabricación de estufas y la producción de biocarbón pueden generar empleos e ingresos. Sin olvidar la probabilidad en un futuro cercano de la valoración por servicios ambientales en un mercado de bonos de carbono.
Desde hace un año que conozco la estufa finca y el biocarbón, cada vez que la prendo vuelvo a sentir fascinación y asombro, y cada vez que introduzco carbón en mi huerta, siento que estoy practicando sanación. Espero que nuestro entusiasmo sea contagioso, y me alegra que haya siempre más usuarios y experimentadores caseros. Es tecnología revolucionaria. Una herramienta para adaptarnos a los cambios en curso, para mejorar la alimentación y la salud humanas, para contribuir a la dignidad económica, a la descentralización y la responsabilidad individual, detoxificando y revitalizando nuestro ambiente. Parece cuento, es simple realidad.
Posted by: kane in: News
SeaChar was written up on NationalGeographic.com today: Biochar Cookstoves Boost Health for People and Crops
Groups like Seattle, Washington-based SeaChar, the recipient of a $72,000grant from National Geographic’s Great Energy Challenge initiative, have been testing new variations on clean cookstoves. SeaChar’s Estufa Finca (“Farm Stove” in Spanish) burns biomass cleanly while turning it into biochar. It’s not a fancy apparatus: Fashioned from local materials, its components include a 5-gallon steel paint bucket, some corrugated steel roofing material, and half of a one-gallon tomato sauce can.
Gloria Torres Buitrago’s family is one of 110 households that acquired one of the stoves last year through SeaChar’s Estufa Finca program in Costa Rica’s Talamanca region. Buitrago says the stove has relieved not only the smoke problem in her home, but also the effort required to keep fires burning. “The time and money it takes to get wood has been reduced a lot,” Buitrago said in an interview with a SeaChar staff member, who then translated and emailed her responses. “This time can be used to share with family or just do other things in the garden.” (See related story: “Protecting Health and the Planet With Clean Cookstoves.”)
In addition to wood, the stove burns garden debris, dried animal dung, and food material such as dried corncobs and coconut husks. A family cooking a pot of beans will use 40 percent less wood with the Estufa Finca than with an open-fire stove, said SeaChar President Art Donnelly, who designed the stove. “Those are trees you do not have to cut down.”
Donnelly said tests conducted by SeaChar show a significant reduction in exposure to harmful smoke. “In laboratory testing, these stoves reduced particulate matter emissions by 92 percent and the carbon monoxide emissions by 87 percent as compared to an open cooking fire,” he said in an email. “These two are the big drivers of respiratory disease.”